Long regarded as a violent outburst significant mainly for California history, the 1871 Los Angeles anti-Chinese massacre raises themes central to America’s Civil War Reconstruction era between 1865 and 1877, namely, the resort to threats and violence to preserve traditionally conceived social and political authority and power. Although the Los Angeles events occurred far from the American South, the Los Angeles anti-Chinese massacre paralleled the anti-black violence that rose in the South during Reconstruction. Although the immediate causes of the violence in the post–Civil War South and California were far different, they shared one key characteristic: they employed racial disciplining to preserve traditional social orders that old elites saw as threatened by changing times and circumstances.
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article.
Chinese herb medicine in the United States is an important part of Chinese American history. As an interesting case of cultural migration, it illustrates how people, work skills, and cultural traditions were transplanted from one place to another. It is both a medical and social history. Chinese herbalists provided a vital medical service to both Chinese and Caucasian patients from the mid-19th century to the first half of the 20th century. This article documents when, how, and why Chinese herbal medicine spread and became popular in America, who the herbalists were, how they operated their businesses, how they served both Chinese and non-Chinese patients, what kinds of challenges they faced, and why herbal medicine became a much needed yet also controversial profession. Its significance and theoretical implications are manifold. Cultural traditions, medical knowledge, medical license laws, racial environment, and ethnic resilience were all important themes in Chinese herbalists’ history.
Kelly N. Fong
The Sacramento Delta is an agricultural region in northern California with deep historic significance for Asian Americans. Asian American laborers were instrumental to the development of Sacramento Delta, transforming the swampy peat bog into one of the richest agricultural areas in California. Beginning in the mid-19th century, Chinese laborers constructed levees, dikes, and ditches along the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers before breaking the fertile soil to grow fruit and vegetables including pears and asparagus. Asian Americans continued a permanent and transient presence in the Sacramento Delta on farms as migrant farm laborers, permanent farmworkers, and overseers, and in the small delta towns such as Isleton that emerged as merchants, restaurant operators, boardinghouse operators, and other business owners catering to the local community.