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Religion in the American City, 1600–1900  

Kyle B. Roberts

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
From Cahokia to Newport, from Santa Fe to Chicago, cities have long exerted an important influence over the development of American religion; in turn, religion has shaped the life of ... More

Religion in the American City, 1900–2000  

Christopher D. Cantwell

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Home to more than half the U.S. population by 1920, cities played an important role in the development of American religion throughout the 20th century. At the same time, the beliefs and ... More

The 1960s  

Robert O. Self

Few decades in American history reverberate with as much historical reach or glow as brightly in living mythology as the 1960s. During those years Americans reanimated and reinvented the ... More

Spatial Segregation and Neighborhoods  

Carl Nightingale

During the 1890s, the word segregation became the preferred term for the practice of coercing different groups of people, especially those designated by race, to live in separate and ... More

Sports, Recreation, and Leisure: Nightlife in the City  

Peter C. Baldwin

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Today the term nightlife typically refers to social activities in urban commercial spaces—particularly drinking, dancing, dining, and listening to live musical performances. This was not ... More

Suburbanization before 1945  

Ann Durkin Keating

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Since the beginning of the 19th century, outlying areas of American cities have been home to a variety of settlements and enterprises with close links to urban centers. Beginning in the ... More

Suburbanization in the United States after 1945  

Becky Nicolaides and Andrew Wiese

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Mass migration to suburban areas was a defining feature of American life after 1945. Before World War II, just 13% of Americans lived in suburbs. By 2010, however, suburbia was home to ... More

United States Vagrancy Laws  

Risa L. Goluboff

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Urban Destruction during the Civil War  

Megan Kate Nelson

During the American Civil War, Union and Confederate commanders made the capture and destruction of enemy cities a central feature of their military campaigns. They did so for two reasons. ... More

Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880–1929  

Jonathan Rees

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Between 1880 and 1929, industrialization and urbanization expanded in the United States faster than ever before. Industrialization, meaning manufacturing in factory settings using machines ... More

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