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Catholicism in the United States  

Margaret McGuinness

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The Catholic Church has been a presence in the United States since the arrival of French and Spanish missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish established a number of ... More

Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Movement  

Matt Garcia

In September 1962, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) held its first convention in Fresno, California, initiating a multiracial movement that would result in the creation of ... More

Childbirth and Breastfeeding in 20th-Century America  

Jessica Martucci

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
By the end of the 19th century, the medical specialties of gynecology and obstetrics established a new trend in women’s healthcare. In the 20th century, more and more American mothers gave ... More

Chinese Herbalists in the United States  

Haiming Liu

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Christian Missions to American Indians  

Carol L. Higham

Online publication date:
May 2016
Comparing Catholic and Protestant missionaries in North America can be a herculean task. It means comparing many religious groups, at least five governments, and hundreds of groups of ... More

Counterinsurgency Warfare in Theory and Practice  

Celeste Gventer

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Creek Confederacy  

Andrew Frank

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Creek Confederacy was a loose coalition of ethnically and linguistically diverse Native American towns that slowly coalesced as a political entity in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... More

Death in Colonial North America: Cross-Cultural Encounters  

Erik R. Seeman

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Death is universal yet is experienced in culturally specific ways. Because of this, when individuals in colonial North America encountered others from different cultural backgrounds, they ... More

Dockworkers in America  

Peter Cole

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The history of dockworkers in America is as fascinating and important as it is unfamiliar. Those who worked along the shore loading and unloading ships played an invaluable role in an ... More

Domestic Workers in U.S. History  

Vanessa May

Online publication date:
May 2017
Domestic work was, until 1940, the largest category of women’s paid labor. Despite the number of women who performed domestic labor for pay, the wages and working conditions were often ... More

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