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  • 20th Century: Post-1945 x
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Origins of the Vietnam War  

Jessica M. Chapman

The origins of the Vietnam War can be traced to France’s colonization of Indochina in the late 1880s. The Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, emerged as the dominant anti-colonial movement by ... More

The Peace Movement since 1945  

Leilah Danielson

Online publication date:
May 2015
Peace activism in the United States between 1945 and the 2010s focused mostly on opposition to U.S. foreign policy, efforts to strengthen and foster international cooperation, and support ... More

Polish Immigration and the American Working Class  

Dominic Pacyga

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
In the years after the Civil War, Polish immigrants became an important part of the American working class. They actively participated in the labor movement and played key roles in various ... More

Propaganda in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations  

Laura A. Belmonte

From the revolutionary era to the post-9/11 years, public and private actors have attempted to shape U.S. foreign relations by persuading mass audiences to embrace particular policies, ... More

Public Authorities  

Gail Radford

Public authorities are agencies created by governments to engage directly in the economy for public purposes. They differ from standard agencies in that they operate outside the ... More

Race, Gender, and Sex Education in 20th-Century America  

Courtney Q. Shah

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A concerted movement to promote sex education in America emerged in the early 20th century as part of a larger public health movement that also responded to the previous century’s concerns ... More

Radicalism in America after 1945  

Vaneesa Cook

Online publication date:
May 2017
Radicalism in the United States since 1945 has been varied, complex, and often fragmented, making it difficult to analyze as a coherent movement. Communist and pro-Soviet organizations ... More

Rap Music  

Austin McCoy

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Rap is the musical practice of hip hop culture that features vocalists, or MCs, reciting lyrics over an instrumental beat that emerged out of the political and economic transformations of ... More

Religion in Post-1945 America  

Darren Dochuk

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jimmy Carter’s “Crisis of Confidence Speech” of July 1979 was a critical juncture in post-1945 U.S. politics, but it also marks an exemplary pivot in post-1945 religion. Five dimensions of ... More

Rock and Roll  

Eric Weisbard

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Rock and roll, a popular music craze of the mid-1950s, turned a loud, fast, and sexy set of sounds rooted in urban, black, working class, and southern America into the pop preference as ... More

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