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Suburbanization before 1945  

Ann Durkin Keating

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Since the beginning of the 19th century, outlying areas of American cities have been home to a variety of settlements and enterprises with close links to urban centers. Beginning in the ... More

Suburbanization in the United States after 1945  

Becky Nicolaides and Andrew Wiese

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Mass migration to suburban areas was a defining feature of American life after 1945. Before World War II, just 13% of Americans lived in suburbs. By 2010, however, suburbia was home to ... More

United States Vagrancy Laws  

Risa L. Goluboff

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Urban Destruction during the Civil War  

Megan Kate Nelson

During the American Civil War, Union and Confederate commanders made the capture and destruction of enemy cities a central feature of their military campaigns. They did so for two reasons. ... More

Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880–1929  

Jonathan Rees

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Between 1880 and 1929, industrialization and urbanization expanded in the United States faster than ever before. Industrialization, meaning manufacturing in factory settings using machines ... More

Urban Politics in the United States before 1940  

James J. Connolly

Online publication date:
May 2016
The convergence of mass politics and the growth of cities in 19th-century America produced sharp debates over the character of politics in urban settings. The development of what came to ... More

Urban Politics in the United States since 1945  

Lily Geismer

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Urban politics provides a means to understand the major political and economic trends and transformations of the last seventy years in American cities. The growth of the federal ... More

Zoning in 20th-Century American Cities  

Christopher Silver

Zoning is a legal tool employed by local governments to regulate land development. It determines the use, intensity, and form of development in localities through enforcement of the zoning ... More

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