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Domestic Workers in U.S. History  

Vanessa May

Online publication date:
May 2017
Domestic work was, until 1940, the largest category of women’s paid labor. Despite the number of women who performed domestic labor for pay, the wages and working conditions were often ... More

Elementary and Secondary Education Policy, Post-1945  

Lawrence J. McAndrews

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Americans almost universally agree on the importance of education to the success of individuals and the strength of the nation. Yet they have long differed over the proper mission of ... More

Employers’ Associations and Open Shop in the United States  

Chad Pearson

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Energy in American History  

Aaron Sachs

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Energy systems have played a significant role in U.S. history; some scholars claim that they have determined a number of other developments. From the colonial period to the present, ... More

The Enlightenment and America  

John M. Dixon

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The Enlightenment, a complex cultural phenomenon that lasted approximately from the late seventeenth century until the early nineteenth century, contained a dynamic mix of contrary beliefs ... More

The Environment in the Atomic Age  

Rachel Rothschild

The development of nuclear technology had a profound influence on the global environment following the Second World War, with ramifications for scientific research, the modern ... More

Epidemics in Indian Country  

David S. Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Few developments in human history match the demographic consequences of the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Between 1500 and 1900 the human populations of the Americas were ... More

Excavating Asian America in the Sacramento Delta  

Kelly N. Fong

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The Sacramento Delta is an agricultural region in northern California with deep historic significance for Asian Americans. Asian American laborers were instrumental to the development of ... More

Federal Indian Law  

N. Bruce Duthu

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
United States law recognizes American Indian tribes as distinct political bodies with powers of self-government. Their status as sovereign entities predates the formation of the United ... More

Federalism  

Alison L. LaCroix

Federalism refers to the constitutional and political structure of the United States of America, according to which political power is divided among multiple levels of ... More

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