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Infrastructure: Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century Urban America  

Jay Young

Mass transit has been part of the urban scene in the United States since the early 19th century. Regular steam ferry service began in New York City in the early 1810s and horse-drawn ... More

Infrastructure: Streets, Roads, and Highways  

Peter Norton

By serving travelers and commerce, roads and streets unite people and foster economic growth. But as they develop, roads and streets also disrupt old patterns, upset balances of power, and ... More

Infrastructure: Water and Sewers  

Joel A. Tarr

Urban water supply and sewage disposal facilities are critical parts of the urban infrastructure. They have enabled cities and their metropolitan areas to function as centers of commerce, ... More

Isolationism  

Justus D. Doenecke

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For the United States, isolationism is best defined as avoidance of wars outside the Western Hemisphere, particularly in Europe; opposition to binding military alliances; and the ... More

Japanese American Resettlement in Postwar America: The Los Angeles Experience  

Jean-Paul deGuzman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Racism and xenophobia, but also resilience and community building, characterize the return of thousands of Japanese Americans, or Nikkei, to the West Coast after World War II. Although the ... More

Jazz, Blues, and Ragtime in America, 1900–1945  

Court Carney

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
In January 1938, Benny Goodman took command of Carnegie Hall on a blustery New York City evening and for two hours his band tore through the history of jazz in a performance that came to ... More

Jazz in America after 1945  

John Gennari

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
In the post-1945 period, jazz moved rapidly from one major avant-garde revolution (the birth of bebop) to another (the emergence of free jazz) while developing a profusion of subgenres ... More

King Philip’s War, 1675–1678  

Lisa T. Brooks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Korean War  

James I. Matray

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
On June 25, 1950, North Korea’s invasion of South Korea ignited a conventional war that had origins dating from at least the end of World War II. In April 1945, President Harry S. Truman ... More

Late 19th-Century U.S. Indian Policy  

C. Joseph Genetin-Pilawa

Online publication date:
May 2016
As the Civil War ended and U.S. leaders sought ways to reconstruct a devastated nation, many turned to westward expansion as a mechanism to give northerners and southerners a shared goal. ... More

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