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Roe v. Wade  

Mary Ziegler

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, Roe v. Wade legalized abortion across the United States. The 7-2 decision came at the end of a decades-long struggle to reform—and later ... More

Struggles over Individual Rights and State Power in the Progressive Era  

Michael Willrich

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
From the 1890s to World War I, progressive reformers in the United States called upon their local, state, and federal governments to revitalize American democracy and address the most ... More

The Scopes Trial  

Adam R. Shaprio

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The 1925 Scopes trial was a widely followed court case in Dayton, Tennessee, that attracted the attention of the nation. A prosecution against a schoolteacher charged with violating ... More

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy  

Sarah B. Snyder

In its formulation of foreign policy, the United States takes account of many priorities and factors, including national security concerns, economic interests, and alliance relationships. ... More

Federalism  

Alison L. LaCroix

Federalism refers to the constitutional and political structure of the United States of America, according to which political power is divided among multiple levels of ... More

Women, Race, and the Law in Early America  

Terri L. Snyder

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Everywhere across European and Indigenous settlements in 17th- and 18th-century North America and the Caribbean, the law or legal practices shaped women’s status and conditioned their ... More

The Society of American Indians  

K. Tsianina Lomawaima

In 1911, a group of American Indian intellectuals organized what would become known as the Society of American Indians, or SAI. SAI members convened in annual meetings between 1911 and ... More

The Separation of Church and State in the United States  

Steven K. Green

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Separation of church and state has long been viewed as a cornerstone of American democracy. At the same time, the concept has remained highly controversial in the popular culture and law. ... More

Federal Indian Law  

N. Bruce Duthu

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
United States law recognizes American Indian tribes as distinct political bodies with powers of self-government. Their status as sovereign entities predates the formation of the United ... More

United States Vagrancy Laws  

Risa L. Goluboff

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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