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The United States at the End of the Cold War, 1989–1993  

James Graham Wilson

The Cold War may have ended on the evening of November 9, 1989, when East German border guards opened up checkpoints and allowed their fellow citizens to stream into West Berlin; it ... More

The United States and Southern Africa  

R. Joseph Parrott

The United States never sought to build an empire in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries, as did European nations from Britain to Portugal. However, economic, ideological, and cultural ... More

Regulating America’s Natural Environment  

Bart Elmore

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From the founding of the American republic through the 19th century, the nation’s environmental policy mostly centered on promoting American settlers’ conquest of the frontier. Early ... More

Antimonopoly in American Politics, 1945–2000  

Daniel Scroop

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Antimonopoly, meaning opposition to the exclusive or near-exclusive control of an industry or business by one or a very few businesses, played a relatively muted role in the history of the ... More

American Environmental Policy Since 1964  

Richard N. L. Andrews

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Between 1964 and 2017, the United States adopted the concept of environmental policy as a new focus for a broad range of previously disparate policy issues affecting human interactions ... More

U.S.-Iraq Relations, 1920–2003  

Brandon Wolfe-Hunnicutt

Oil played a central role in shaping US policy toward Iraq over the course of the 20th century. The United States first became involved in Iraq in the 1920s as part of an effort secure a ... More

The United States and Southeast Asia  

Kenton Clymer

The U.S. relationship with Southeast Asia has always reflected the state of U.S. interactions with the three major powers that surround the region: Japan, China, and, to a lesser extent, ... More

Communist Party USA, 1919 to 1957  

James R. Barrett

The largest and most important revolutionary socialist organization in US history, the Communist Party USA was always a minority influence. It reached considerable size and influence, ... More

Organized Labor and the Civil Rights Movement  

Alan Draper

The relationship between organized labor and the civil rights movement proceeded along two tracks. At work, the two groups were adversaries, as civil rights groups criticized employment ... More

Politics of Reproductive Rights in 20th-Century America  

Rickie Solinger

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The reproductive experiences of women and girls in the 20th-century United States followed historical patterns shaped by the politics of race and class. Laws and policies governing ... More