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Teacher Unionism in the 20th-Century United States  

Adam Mertz

Since the turn of the 20th century, teachers have tried to find a balance between bettering their own career prospects as workers and educating their students as public servants. To reach ... More

Communist Party USA, 1919 to 1957  

James R. Barrett

The largest and most important revolutionary socialist organization in US history, the Communist Party USA was always a minority influence. It reached considerable size and influence, ... More

Organized Labor and the Civil Rights Movement  

Alan Draper

The relationship between organized labor and the civil rights movement proceeded along two tracks. At work, the two groups were adversaries, as civil rights groups criticized employment ... More

Social Gospel and the American Working Class  

Janine Giordano Drake

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The term “Social Gospel” was coined by ministers and other well-meaning American Protestants with the intention of encouraging the urban and rural poor to understand that Christ cared ... More

Irish American Working Class  

David Brundage

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Between the 1790s and the 1990s, the Irish American population grew from some 500,000 to nearly 40 million. Part of this growth was due to immigration, especially in the years of the Great ... More

Polish Immigration and the American Working Class  

Dominic Pacyga

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
In the years after the Civil War, Polish immigrants became an important part of the American working class. They actively participated in the labor movement and played key roles in various ... More

Dockworkers in America  

Peter Cole

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The history of dockworkers in America is as fascinating and important as it is unfamiliar. Those who worked along the shore loading and unloading ships played an invaluable role in an ... More

The Socialist Party of America, 1900–1929  

Elizabeth McKillen

One of the pervasive myths about the United States is that it has never had a socialist movement comparable to other industrialized nations. Yet in the early 20th century a vibrant ... More

Domestic Workers in U.S. History  

Vanessa May

Online publication date:
May 2017
Domestic work was, until 1940, the largest category of women’s paid labor. Despite the number of women who performed domestic labor for pay, the wages and working conditions were often ... More

Public Sector Unionism  

Joseph E. Hower

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Government employees are an essential part of the early-21st-century labor movement in the United States. Teachers, firefighters, and police officers are among the most heavily unionized ... More

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