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American Food, Cooking, and Nutrition, 1900–1945  

Helen Zoe Veit

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The first half of the 20th century saw extraordinary changes in the ways Americans produced, procured, cooked, and ate food. Exploding food production easily outstripped population growth ... More

American Foreign Economic Policy  

Daniel Sargent

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Foreign economic policy involves the mediation and management of economic flows across borders. Over two and a half centuries, the context for U.S. foreign economic policy has transformed. ... More

Antimonopoly in American Politics, 1945–2000  

Daniel Scroop

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Antimonopoly, meaning opposition to the exclusive or near-exclusive control of an industry or business by one or a very few businesses, played a relatively muted role in the history of the ... More

Food and Agriculture in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

Gabriella M. Petrick

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Fur Trades  

Carolyn Podruchny and Stacy Nation-Knapper

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
From the 15th century to the present, the trade in animal fur has been an economic venture with far-reaching consequences for both North Americans and Europeans (in which North Americans ... More

The New Deal  

Wendy L. Wall

The New Deal generally refers to a set of domestic policies implemented by the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in response to the crisis of the Great Depression. Propelled by ... More

Professional Team Sports in the United States  

Steven A. Riess

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Professional sports teams are athletic organizations comprising talented, expert players hired by club owners whose revenues originally derived from admission fees charged to spectators ... More

Regulating America’s Natural Environment  

Bart Elmore

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From the founding of the American republic through the 19th century, the nation’s environmental policy mostly centered on promoting American settlers’ conquest of the frontier. Early ... More

Smuggling in Early America  

Christian J. Koot

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Smuggling was a regular feature of the economy of colonial British America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Though the very nature of illicit commerce means that the extent of this trade is ... More

The Counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s  

Blake Slonecker

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
In the decade after 1965, radicals responded to the alienating features of America’s technocratic society by developing alternative cultures that emphasized authenticity, individualism, ... More